关于母狗基因繁殖的文章,非常详细,藏獒繁殖可以参考

这篇文章来自著名的哈士奇繁殖者UTOPIALAND的DORIS写的关于母犬的繁殖。值得我们重新思考,什么叫做繁殖!~

作者:Utopialand Siberians Doris
翻译者: Jacools

在此悠然感谢翻译者的无私和辛勤劳动,为我们带来这样优秀的文章。

The motivation for me to write these articles are to remember my two beloved girls – Chrissy and Flame. Without them, I would not have had such the joy in the breeding world. I would not be able to meet so many people and some of them even become my friends now. And also, I would not be able to set and reach my goals.
我写这篇文章的目的就是记忆我的两只狗狗Chirssy和Flame。没有他们我在我的繁殖的世界里将没有任何的快乐。以致于不会碰到这么多人其中很多人已经成为了我的很好的朋友,也不会建立和达到我的目标。

“Quality, not Quantity” is a slogan that has been around for ages and always appears as many kennels’ motto but what does it really mean? Some breeders may interpret “Quantity” as the number of litters the breeder has in a year. In fact, it is difficult to determine whether the breeder improves the breed or not only based on the number of litters. I remember one of the USA breeders, who bred one of the greatest Siberian husky in the history – Am/Can Ch. Innisfree’s Sierra Cinner, once said, “You can’t improve the breed by not breeding”. My interpretation of Quality is the consistency of the producing in the breeding program.
“品质不是数量”而是很长时间作为狗舍的座右铭的口号,但是他真正的含义是什么呢?一些饲养人可能把“数量”翻译成为一年里有多少窝狗。事实上,很难界定繁殖者是否改善了他的品种或者只基于他有多少窝狗。我记得一个美国的繁殖者,他繁殖了历史上最棒的哈士奇Am/Can Ch. Innisfree’s Sierra Cinner
他曾经说过“你不可能在你不繁殖的情况下改良你的品种”。我的对品质的理解就是在繁殖过程中的连贯性的生产。

For example, Breeder A had 2 litters and produced 12 puppies in a year but only 1 puppy became a Champion, which means 8.3% of the producing is achieved by Breeder A. Breeder B had 4 litters and produced 15 puppies in a year but 6 puppies became Champions, which means that 40% of the producing is achieved by Breeder B. Hence Breeder B produced better and more consistent quality than Breeder A. Comparatively, Breeder A just breeds for “Quantity”.
举个例子:繁殖者A一年里有两窝狗生了12个崽,只有1个小狗赢了,就是说他的优秀率占了8.3%,繁殖者B一年里4窝狗繁殖了15只小崽,有6个小狗成为了冠军,也就是说繁殖者B的繁殖优秀率是40%。可见繁殖者B比繁殖者A的产出还有他的一贯的品质要好。比较而言繁殖者A只是繁殖了“数量”

How can we breed consistent quality in our breeding? Selecting a potential brood *** is the best interest of the breeder to produce consistent litters. I would like to show you my studies, research and experience for selecting a quality brood ***, the importance of a quality brood *** and how to produce a future quality brood *** through careful breeding plans and then achieve consistent quality in breeding.
我们如何在繁殖过程中繁殖出一贯很好的品质呢?选出一只有潜力血统的母犬是繁殖者为了产出好狗而最感兴趣的。我很愿意秀一下我对选一条好的种母的学习研究以及经验。好品质的种母和如何在将来繁殖好的种母的重要性在于通过精心的饲养计划并且在饲养过程中达到好的符合标准的品质。

1. Quality Brood ***
“Nothing in the world is as important to the breeding program as the selection of the breed ***.” – Born to Win, by Patricia V. Craige
Five points should be considered when selecting a quality brood or a foundation ***:
1. 优质的母犬
“世界上没有比在饲养过程中挑选一只好品种的母犬更重要的了” –Born to Win, by Patricia V. Craige
在选一只好的母犬或者培养一只母犬的时候需要有五点要仔细考虑的。
1.1 Breed type:
Different breeders may interpret breed type differently and it does not mean who is right or wrong. Breed type includes “Form and Function”
1.1 繁殖类型
不同的繁殖者理解的繁殖也有所不同,不在乎谁对谁错。饲养类型包括“体形和功能”
“In Siberian husky’s breed standard, MODERATE and MEDIUM are mentioned 18 times” – The Siberian husky breed focus by Thomas L. Oelschlager
在哈士奇的繁殖标准里中等的、适度的被提到18次–The Siberian husky breed focus by Thomas L. Oelschlager
Basically, MODERATE and MEDIUM represent the Siberian husky breed type or characteristics. Each breed has different breed type (form and function), which is used to identify the breed.
基本上,中等和适度代表着哈士奇的养殖类型和特点。每一种繁殖有着不同的繁殖特点(形式和功能)用它来定义繁殖
For instance, Afghanistan is a mountainous country, therefore Afghan Hounds have steep pelvis because they excel in running uphill. However, the Siberian Husky should have normal pelvis because the Siberian Husky was imported into Alaska to be a sled dog who moves at a moderate speed. Due to this fact, their structure is more towards speed and endurance. Steep pelvis is disadvantageous to endurance dogs. Remember, when selecting a *** for breeding, the breeder should never select one with no breed characteristics to fulfil the breeding goal just because she is the only *** in the kennel. A quality brood *** must have correct breed type.
比如,阿富汗是一个多山的国家,因此阿富汗猎犬有着陡降的骨盆,因为他们善于奔跑上山。无论怎样,哈士奇应该有正常的骨盆,因为哈士奇作为雪橇犬移动的中等速度被引入阿拉斯加。根据这个原因,他们的结构更趋向于速度和耐力犬。记得当选一条母狗来繁殖,繁殖者绝不会因为他是犬舍里面唯一的母狗而选她来达到繁殖的目标。一条优质的种母犬必须有着正确的繁殖特点。
1.2 Soundness:
“Soundness is fitness to function.” – K-9 Structure & Terminology by Edward M. Gilbert, Jr. & Thelma R. Brown

1.2 稳固
“稳固是相对于功能而言的”– K-9 Structure & Terminology by Edward M. Gilbert, Jr. & Thelma R. Brown
Breed type and soundness can never be separate in the breed because breed type represents “form and function” and soundness represents “fitness to function”. Each breed has its original functions. Dogs from each breed are required to have soundness to perform this function. Soundness also includes health. Likewise, breeders should never pick a working dog for breeding just because it is a healthy dog when the *** cannot perform her original breed function.
繁殖类型和稳固是在繁殖中绝对不会分开来的,因为繁殖类型代表着“体形和功能”,稳固则代表着“健康与功能”每一次的繁殖都有着他原始的功能。狗狗从每一次繁殖中都需要健康来达到这种功能。稳固也包括健康。同样的,繁殖者们当母狗不能达到他自己原始的繁殖状态的时候,绝不应该挑只是因为它是一条健康的犬去繁殖。

1.3 Anatomy, behaviour and movement (phenotype):
“Anatomy is a branch of biology that is the consideration of the structure of living things.” – Wikipedia
1.3 解剖学,行为和运动(显型)
解剖学是生物学的一个分支,他是生物结构必须要考虑的事情。

Canine anatomy is essential to breeding and is not only about structure. It includes the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, urinary, immune, integumentary, lymphatic, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory and skeletal systems. But at the dog shows, judges usually are only be able to judge on skeleton, muscles, temperament and movement.
犬科解剖学不仅仅是关于狗的结构构造,还是繁殖中必须的。包括心血管,消化,内分泌,泌尿,免疫,外皮,淋巴,肌肉,神经,生殖,呼吸还有骨骼系统。但是当狗狗比赛的时候,裁判通常只是评判狗的骨架结构,肌肉,性格和动态。
A quality brood *** must have correct structure. It is almost impossible to radically correct some structural faults (such as shoulder placement) in only one to two generations. However, an ordinary *** without any obvious virtues should not be picked for breeding just because she does not have any obvious structural fault. Remember, breeding quality is hard.
好的种母必须要有正确的骨骼结构,几乎不太可能在1-2代狗狗中从根本上纠正一些结构上的缺陷(比如肩胛骨中间的空隙)。因此,一只没有任何明显优点的普通的母狗不应该被选作种母,而不是因为他没有明显的结构缺陷。请记住,繁殖质量是很困难的
A *** should have a stable temperament with intelligence because she is like a model of behaviour to her puppies. Therefore, any aggressive *** should not be selected in the breeding program.
一只母犬应该有着稳定的而聪明的性格,因为对于他的孩子们他就像一个行为举止上的范例。因此任何好斗的母狗不应该在繁殖过程中被选择。

Movement is another very important element to consider when selecting a quality brood ***. Up to the time of weaning, the dam is the main influence on her offspring. Puppies always learn from their dam, and this includes movement. If the *** does not have correct movement such as restricted stride, topline with up and down motion when moving, incorrect single-track movement and etc, put her in a loving pet home and never breed her.
1.4 Pedigree (genotype):
When planning breeding, whether the dogs in the pedigree are Champions or not does not mean much for reproduction without analysis. The purpose of the pedigrees is to allow breeders to analysis the traits of the dogs in that pedigree and to see how they can be passed on them to the next generation.
Genotype determines the individual’s hereditary traits. Genotype and phenotype are of equal importance in breeding. For instance, even though sire and dam have correct tail set that shows a correct phenotype to breeders, it tells nothing about genotype to breeders and some of their puppies may still have an incorrect tail set. Hence why breeders need to have some basic concepts of genetic and do a lot of homework about the traits of each dog in the pedigree for selecting a quality ***.

1.5 Reproductive records:
It is important to record the reproductive history of the *** and her family because it will be a very useful reference tool in the future to evaluate the producing of the ***. The following reproductive records should be considered when selecting a quality brood ***. The first two points are related to show wins. Despite the fact that the show ring is not a perfect place to test animals’ quality, it is all there is.

动态在挑选一只好的母犬被认为是另外一项非常重要的因素。在断奶的时候,母犬是主要影响着他的后代。小狗们总是从他们的妈妈哪里学习着,包括动态。如果母犬没有正确的动态,像不能大步跑,运动时背线或高或低还有不正确的直线跑等等,把她归于宠物级吧,不要再做繁殖了
1.4 血统
当进行繁殖计划时,无论狗狗的血统里是否带有冠军犬并不完全意味着繁殖时候不进行分析统计。血统的目的是让繁殖者来分析这只狗在他的血统里的特征表象,并且认识到他们如何继续下去做下一代的繁殖。

基因类型决定了个体遗传的特征。基因和显性特征在繁殖中是相同重要的两方面。举个例子,虽然父亲和母亲都有着正确的尾位对于繁殖者而言这显现出了正确的显型基因。但这并没有告诉繁殖者基因型以及他们的小狗仍有可能有不正确的尾位。这就是为什么繁殖者需要有一些最基础的基因的概念并且做一些工作有关于每只狗血统的特征从而挑选高品质的繁殖犬。

1.5生殖记录
记录母犬和这窝小狗的历史是十分重要的因为这在将来是非常有用的资料工具用来评估母犬的生产。当挑选一只高品质母犬时以下的生殖记录是应该被考虑的。前两点是关系到比赛胜出有关系的。尽管赛场不是评判动物品质最好的场所,但是也可以证明他的价值。

1) The percentage of her offspring to become champions (including conformation title, obedience title, endurance title and etc). For instance, both *** A and *** B are the best to compliment the stud dogs in regards to phenotype and genotype. *** A has 3 litters, producing 8 puppies. Among her puppies, 5 of those become Champions. Therefore, 62.5% of her offspring are Champions. *** B also has 3 litters, but producing 21 puppies. Among her puppies, eight of those become Champions. Therefore, 38.1% of her offspring are Champions. It is clear to see which *** is a better quality brood *** for this dog.
她的后代成为冠军的比率包括(结构,服从能力,耐力等等)比如说,母狗A和母***在都是被赞同的最好的种犬。母犬A有三窝小狗,生了八只小狗。在她这些小狗中,有5只得了冠军,因此他的后代的62.5%是冠军。母***也有三窝,但是生了21只小狗,在他的这些小狗当中有38.1%的是冠军。很明显的看到这只狗的做种母犬的品质比那只要好。
2) For conformation show, the percentage of her offspring to get Best In Show, Group wins, group placement and specialties wins should be considered.
关于结构展,她的后代得到BIS,小组冠军,小组定位以及特殊展冠军的百分比是应该认真考虑的。
3) A study on whether the *** can produce better male offspring or female offspring.
研究是否这只母犬可以产出优品质的小公或小母。
4) A study on the reproductive records of the *** of the sire’s dam.
研究狗祖母的生殖记录
5) Did the *** produce any genetic conditions in the offspring?
是否母犬的后代有遗传病?

2. X-Factor
未知因素
“THE X FACTOR points out the brood *** may be more important than previously realized.” – Another Puzzle piece, Patricia Craige, 1998
未知因素指出种母也许比之前认识到的情况更重要。– Another Puzzle piece, Patricia Craige, 1998
Thoroughbred breeding has made a great impact in canine breeding because of the revolutionary and exciting new insights gained by the genetics experts in thoroughbreds. In 1997, Patricia Craige published a well-known canine breeding book “Born to Win – Breed to Succeed”. Mrs Craige can be called a pioneer with the introduction of the thoroughbred’s X-Factor theory into the Canine world.
因为通过遗传学家在纯种犬繁殖的创新以及很有独特新的见解下,纯种犬的繁殖已经给犬业的繁殖中造成了很大的冲击。在1997年,Patricia Craige发表了一篇很有明的关于犬繁殖的书籍“赢在出生,胜在繁殖”。Craige女士可以被称为把纯种犬的未知因素理论引入狗狗世界里的先驱。

Canines have 39 chromosome pairs. Like most mammals, canines have one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Each sire carries one Y-chromosome and one X-chromosome, denoted as XY, while each dam carries two X-chromosomes, denoted as XX. The sire receives the X-chromosome from his dam and then passes on it to his daughters while he inherits the Y-chromosome from his sire and then passes it on to his sons. The X-chromosome is considerably larger than the Y-chromosome in size and Y-chromosome carries lesser inheritable materials. Different mammals have different sized of X- and Y-chromosomes. For instance, the X-chromosome in a horse is 70% larger than Y-chromosome. Canine X-chromosome’s size is 139 Mb* which is the largest chromosome the among 39 chromosome pairs because Y-chromosome’s size is just 27 Mb. The canine X-chromosome is over 80% larger than the Y-chromosome. 狗狗有39对染色体。像大多数哺乳动物一样,狗在每一个细胞里都有一对性染色体。每一个父体携带一个Y型染色体和一个X型染色体,用XY来表示,与此同时每一个母体携带两个X染色体,被表示为XX。父体从他的母体接到X染色体然后把它传给他的女儿们,与此同时他从他的父亲哪里继承了Y染色体然后传给他的儿子们。X染色体在大小上要比Y染色体要大得多,并且Y染色体携带了很少的遗传物质。不同哺乳动物的X和Y染色体的大小是不同的。比如说,马的X染色体要比Y的染色体要大70%。狗的X染色体的大小是139Mb,是狗狗39对染色体中最大的,因为Y型染色体的大小只有27Mb。狗的X染色体差不多比Y型染色体要大80%。

Different mammals’ chromosomes carry different inheritable materials. For instance, the X-chromosome of the horse carries large heart characteristics. According to different chromosomes, a region of DNA, e.g., quantitative trait locus (QTL) can be found that is related to a particular phenotypic trait. X-chromosomes have been shown to carry genes in relation to sex, reproduction, mental functions, skeletal muscle and a part of skeletal traits.
不同的哺乳动物的染色体携带不同的遗传物质。比如说,马的X染色体携带了大量的心脏特征(心脏越大,越适合奔跑)。根據不同的染色體區域的DNA ,例如,數量性狀位點( QTL )可以發現,涉及到某一特定表型性狀。X 染色体表现出携带有关的基因给性别,生殖,智力,骨骼肌和一部分骨骼性状。
As mentioned above, the X-chromosome contains the genes associated with reproduction, mental function, skeletal muscle and a part of skeleton characteristic. The sire carries only one X chromosome while the dam carries two. Following careful breeding plans, the quality brood ***es in the breed can usually carry two quality X-chromosomes and when a brood *** carries on two quality X-chromosomes, she can possibly produce the same quality male offspring and female offspring.
上述所说的,X染色体包含了基因所关联的生殖,智力,骨骼肌,和一部分的骨骼性状。父亲只携带一个X染色体,而母亲则携带两个X染色体。根据仔细细心的繁殖计划,在繁殖中优质种母犬通常携带两个优质的X染色体,并且当一个种母犬携带两个X染色体,它有可能产出两个一样品质的公的后代和母的后代。

Hence, selecting a quality dam is very important. When a breeder chooses a dam for breeding, the breeder must select a well-constructed *** with a good producing record. When selecting a stud dog for breeding, the breeder must study the structure and the reproductive record of the stud dog’s dam. In order to produce good brood ***es in the breeding program, the breeder should only use the stud dogs that are produced by great dams since the X of the sire will be passed onto his daughters. In this respect, mediocre ***es must be avoided in the breeding programs.
因此挑选一条优质的母犬十分重要。当繁殖者挑选了一只母犬做繁殖,繁殖者必须挑选一只有很好的生殖记录的优质母犬。当挑一只种母做繁殖的时候,繁殖者必须懂得种狗母亲的结构和生殖记录。为了在繁殖中产出优质的母狗,繁殖者应该只用那些來自优质的母亲的種狗,因为优质的母亲可以遗传其中一個X给種狗 并且種狗唯一的X将遗传给他的女儿。在这方面,普通的母狗必须要在繁殖过程中避免。
Referring to figure 2.1, Venus must contain one Vanna’s X-Chromosome and she has 50% chance to carry Jordan’s X-chromosome and a 50% chance to carry one of two Marilyn’s X-chromosome.
Venus一定有包含了Vanna的一个X染色体,她有50%的纪律携带Jordan的X染色体,也有50%的纪律携带一个Marilyn两个X染色体其中的一个

Figure 2.1. Venus’s pedigree
ust like every other breeding methodology, the X-factor also has its limitations. Breeders need to be aware of the sex linked diseases, which is an abnormal gene contained in X chromosome. Normally, sex linked diseases are linked with X-chromosome. It is extremely rare to link with the Y-chromosome. For instance, XL-PRA disease is linked with the X-chromosome in Siberian Husky.
与其他的繁殖理论一样,未知因素也有它自身的局限性。繁殖者需要了解到的性状疾病,那就是X染色体中存在着不正常的基因。通常来说,性状疾病是与染色体相关联的。他与Y染色体联系十分小。比如哈士奇的XL-PRA疾病就与X染色体相关联。

3. M Factor
线粒体因素
With both muscle and structure are important to provide support and movement to the dogs, the metabolic system also has equal importance to movement. Its chemical reaction, which occurring in all living organisms generates energy and maintains life. Due to the extremely heterogeneous tissue of the mammalian skeletal muscle, its different muscles fibres can metabolically satisfy various functional demands. The Siberian Husky is an example of this. The Siberian Husky is required to have an explosive movement to start, which is provided by Type II (fast twitch) muscle fibre, and endurance, which is provided by Type I (slow twitch) muscle fibre.
肌肉和结构对狗提供支持并和他的动态是很重要的。他是发生在生物有机体产生能量并且维持生命的一种化学反应。根据一系列极其多样的哺乳动物骨骼肌,不同的肌肉纤维可以新陈代谢出满足不同功能的需求。哈士奇犬就是一个例子。哈士奇需要有爆发力的启动,这是由II型(快速颤动)肌肉纤维提供的。耐力是由I型(慢速颤动)肌肉纤维提供的。
Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. The number of Mitochondrion depends on the biochemical metabolic level. The more exuberant the metabolic activities are, the more mitochondria there are present in the cell. Mitochondria can be described as “cellular power plants” because its organic matter oxidation can convert energy into Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria have a small amount of their own DNA, which is called as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). mtDNA contains thirty-seven genes, which are essential to normal mitochondrial function. In order to make enzymes in oxidative phosphorylation, instructions are given by thirteen of these genes. Oxidative phosphorylation is defined as the process of using oxygen and sugars to create the main energy source of the cell, which is ATP. The more the muscle is capable of oxidizing organic matter into ATP, the better the muscle would be.
线粒体是在细胞从食物中转化的可以被细胞使用的形式的结构。线粒体的数量是随着生物化学体的新陈代谢等级而定的。生物体新陈代谢活动的越多,线粒体在细胞里的数量就越多。线粒体可以被描述为“小型发电厂”,因为他的有机氧可以可以在三磷酸腺苷中(ATP)转化成能量。线粒体在自己的被叫做线粒体的DNA中数量很少。线粒体DNA包含了37个对线粒体功能十分必要基因。为了在氧化磷酸中产生酶。
M-Factor , so called by thoroughbred breeding theorist Ken McLean, refers to mtDNA. Biologists also discovered the following three points in regards to Mitochondria:
M-要素,命名于纯种动物繁殖理论学家Ken McLean. 生物学家也发现了一下三点根据线粒体
1) They possess their own DNA with its slightly different genetic code. mtDNA is independent and non-Mendelian.他们附带他们不同的轻微的基因代码占有他们自己的DNA。MtDNA,是独立的并且非孟德尔派的。
2) Mitochondria can only be passed onto the next generation by the mother. She can hand on some of her mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the egg. 线粒体只能通过母体传递到下一代。她可以把一些他的在细胞液里的线粒体传递到卵子之中。
3) The rate of evolution of mtDNA appears to be approximately ten times faster than that of Nuclear DNA (i.e. DNA found in the nucleus of cells.
MtDNA发展的速度要比核子DNA将近快了10倍。
In reproduction, since mitochondria are inherited only from the dam, the dam’s egg cell will destroy the mitochondria in mammalian sperm after fertilization.
在繁殖中,线粒体只有从母辈继承,母亲的卵细胞将在受精后破坏在精子中的线粒体。

Ken McLean believes that in racing horse breeding, superior mitochondria can be transmitted via direct female line for generations. “Perhaps some race horses inherit far superior mitochondria from their dams in direct female-line descent. This might explain why some families can produce a consistent number of stakes winners.”, he wrote in Genetic Heritage.
Ken McLean相信在赛级马匹的繁育中,优良的线粒体可以凭借母系直线传递给后代。
What does M-Factor have done with canine breeding? Because the sire cannot pass on mtDNA to his offspring, it is essential that breeders select a dam with correct musculoskeletal system. When breeders apply X-factor theory and understand the importance of M-factor in breeding, they can begin to structure the pedigree and phenotype together in the hope of obtaining a quality brood *** for their future breeding programs.
M-因素可以为犬只繁殖做点什么呢?因为公犬不能传递mtDNA给他们的后代,必要的是繁殖者选自一直骨骼系统好的母犬。当繁殖者们应用X-因素理论并且明白M-因素在繁殖过程中的重要性的时候,他们可以开始开始架构血统和显型在一起,为了希望能出一条高质量的母犬为将来的繁殖计划。

4. Planning producing quality brood ***
计划生产高质量母犬
Many breeders believe that the ideal brood *** may come about by luck, but not by searching for her. This is not true. In fact, a breeder can plan and structure the pedigrees of both the sire and dam with the correct phenotype for producing superior quality brood ***. Before discussing how to plan and structure the pedigree, you should understand what “Direct Female Line” and “Female Family Inbreeding/Linebreeding” are.
许多的繁殖者相信完美的母犬可能出现的很幸运,但是不是因为搜寻而得到的。这是不对的。事实上一个繁殖者可以计划并且为公狗母狗构建血统。在套如何计划和架构血统,你应该明白什么是“直接母系线”和“母狗家庭近亲繁殖。”
4.1 Direct Tail Female line
直接跟踪母系线
Each dog has a direct tail female line and a direct sire line in the pedigree but breeders need to identify a good reproductive record from direct tail female line in the pedigree. The direct tail female line is located on the dam side. In Figure 4.1, all the ***es along the bottom line of the pedigree (highlighted in yellow) while direct sire line is located on the sire side, (all the sires along the top line of the pedigree highlighted in green in Figure 4.1). In order to select a quality dam with true “Direct Tail Female Line”, breeders need to research and study the relevant reproductive record.
每个狗都有一条直接母系线和直接父系线在血统里,但是繁殖者需要从血统中直接母系线中识别一个好的生殖记录。这条直接母系线存在于母方。所有的母狗沿着血统最下面的线(黄色),同时呢直接父系线在父方(绿色),为了挑选一只高质量的有着直接母系线的
For example, Siska had 5 litters, producing 26 puppies. She produced 11 Champions, which means that 42.3% of her total offspring were Champions plus one of the greatest brood ***es in the history. Siska’s daughter – Fire had 7 litters, producing 31 puppies and she produced 13 Champions and 34.2% of her total offspring are Champions and some of those are individual Best in Show winners and Specialty winners. Fire’s Daughter – Flame had 4 litters, producing 19 puppies. She produced 10 Champions with 52.6% of her total offspring being Champions. With two of those being individual Best in Show winners and four of those are Runner-Up Best in Show winners.
举个例子,Siska有5窝,生了26个。她诞生了11个冠军,也就是说42.3%的的冠军率,名且有一个非常优秀的历史。Siska的女儿Fire有7窝,31只狗,13只得了冠军,也就是说34.2%的后代优秀率而且他们中的是BIS和SW。Fire的女儿Flame有4窝小狗,19只小狗。她生了10个冠军,优秀率52.6%。有着两项单独BIS冠军和四个Rbis。
According to these figures, Siska, Fire and Flame carried on their consistent producing from generation to generation and more importantly, it shows that Spice has quality “Direct Tail Female Line” in the pedigree. For a quality brood ***, the percentage for her offspring to come Champions (including conformation title, obedience title or endurance test, etc) should be over 30% out of her total offspring. In the Siberian Husky’s breed history, the most superior brood *** produced 13 puppies in the 1980’s. Twelve of those finished as Champions meaning that 92.3% of her total offspring are Champions.
根据上述特点,Siska,Fire和Flame都有始终如一一代一代的生产, 这表明,Spice在血统里有着直接母系线。一条好的母狗的后代冠军的百分比应该超过30%在他的后代中。在哈士奇繁育的历史中,最好的母犬在1980年的时候生产了13只小狗,12只完成了冠军登陆,意味着92.3%的后代优秀率。
见图片
 4.2 Female Family Inbreeding / Linebreeding

“My final Conclusion, then is that bloodstock breeders should take yet another and close look at the classic methods of mating practiced by their successful forebears, as discussed in detail in this book: inbreed, not to the same stallion (sire), but to the same (foundation) mare (dam) within three to five generations….” – Breeding Racehorses, Dennis Craig, 1964.

The valuable breeding methods are those that have been tested over many years and have quality from generation to generation. “Female Family Inbreeding (FFI)” is the method that has been documented since the origin of the Thoroughbred. FFI occurs when an individual’s sire and dam contribute complementary strains from the same female ancestors. Thoroughbred and Canine breeders interpret inbreeding differently. Thoroughbred breeders believe that inbreeding occurs when the same ancestorrepeat in 5 generations whereas canine breeders believe that inbreeding occurs when breeding brother to sister and parents to offspring occurs.

我最终结论是,纯血统繁殖者应该使用并且密切关注用它们的成功的祖辈来配种这样经典的繁殖方法,正如在Dennis Craig, 1964年出版的赛级马的繁殖的书中说道的,“不用一只种马(犬)而是用不同的母马(犬)进行3至5代的繁殖。

这种宝贵的繁殖方法是一代一代经过N多年的测试实验总结出来的。“母系繁殖FFI”是最初以纯种马的繁殖落实成文件的。母系繁殖是体现在,当一个由同样母体生产的的独立的公和母所促进的血统互补作用。

纯种马和犬的繁殖者解释系统繁殖有所不同。纯种马繁殖者人为同系繁殖发生在相同的祖辈在5代内重复。纯种犬繁殖者则认为同系繁殖出现在兄配妹,父配后代。
Canine breeders also believe that linebreeding occurs when breeding grandsire to grand-offspring, uncle to niece and aunt to nephew. Due to different interpretations, FFI should be written as “Female Family lnbreeding / linebreeding” for canine breeding. The following are some examples of female family inbreeding / linebreeding pedigrees:
犬只繁殖者相信同种异系交配发生在祖父到他的孙子, 叔叔到侄子,舅妈到外甥。根据不同的翻译解释,FFI应该被记载为母系家庭的同种异系交配。以下就是母系同种异系交配的例子
例子
 服了,翻译的人很会偷懒,都是忘记翻译的部分
4.3 Pedigree Pattern for seeking quality brood ***

“…… sometimes the ultimate in balance (pedigree) is achieved when the great producers in the breed relate to each other in balanced genetic combinations they return to the progeny through both sire and the dam.” – Born to Win, by Patricia V. Craige

In Inbreeding to Superior female, by Rommy Faversham and Leon Rasmussen, which was published in 1999, the authors introduced two pedigree patterns for FFI. One is Formula One Pattern pedigree and the other is Delta Pattern pedigree.
对很好的母犬做同种异系交配,出自Rommy Faversham 和 Leon Rasmussen,1999年,坐着介绍了2个给FFI的血统图谱,一个是公式,一个是图谱,还有一个是三角洲图示血统。
4.3.1 Formula One Pattern
In regards to Female Family Inbreeding / Linebreeding, for Formula One Pattern to be constituted, the individual’s sire and dam should both share the same dam or grand dam in the pedigree (see Figure 4.5). Breeders can apply X- factor and M-factor to structure the Formula One Pattern in the hope to get a quality brood ***.
根据第一图谱准则,单独的公狗和母狗应该两个都共享同样的母亲和祖母在血统里。繁殖者可以应该用X因素和M因素建立图谱准则,如果希望想得到高质量的母犬。
Firstly, it is assumed that Flame is a quality brood *** in the following pedigrees, so we attempt to structure two Flame X-chromosomes. Caesar passes on one Flame X-chromosome to his daughter because he only carries one X-chromosome from his dam, while Spice has one Chief X-chromosome and one Flame X-Chromosome. In figure 4.5, if breeding Caesar to Spice, their female offspring will have 75% chance to carry two Flame X-chromosomes and all their female offspring will carry on with Flame’s mtDNA because M-factor is only shown in ***’s “Direct Tail Female Line”.
首先。假定Flame是一支高质量的种母犬在下面的血统表里,因此我们尝试着去建立两个Flame的X染色体。Caesar传了Flame的1个X染色体给了他的女儿,因为他只携带了一个x色体从他的妈妈,同时呢Spice有一个Chief的X染色体和一个Flame的X染色体。 在体征4.5,如果繁育Ceasar 和Spice,他们的小母后代将有75%记录携带Flame的Mtdna, 因为M因素只显示在母犬的直接母系跟踪线上。

 

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