作者：Utopialand Siberians Doris
The motivation for me to write these articles are to remember my two beloved girls – Chrissy and Flame. Without them, I would not have had such the joy in the breeding world. I would not be able to meet so many people and some of them even become my friends now. And also, I would not be able to set and reach my goals.
“Quality, not Quantity” is a slogan that has been around for ages and always appears as many kennels’ motto but what does it really mean? Some breeders may interpret “Quantity” as the number of litters the breeder has in a year. In fact, it is difficult to determine whether the breeder improves the breed or not only based on the number of litters. I remember one of the USA breeders, who bred one of the greatest Siberian husky in the history – Am/Can Ch. Innisfree’s Sierra Cinner, once said, “You can’t improve the breed by not breeding”. My interpretation of Quality is the consistency of the producing in the breeding program.
“品质不是数量”而是很长时间作为狗舍的座右铭的口号，但是他真正的含义是什么呢？一些饲养人可能把“数量”翻译成为一年里有多少窝狗。事实上，很难界定繁殖者是否改善了他的品种或者只基于他有多少窝狗。我记得一个美国的繁殖者，他繁殖了历史上最棒的哈士奇Am/Can Ch. Innisfree’s Sierra Cinner
For example, Breeder A had 2 litters and produced 12 puppies in a year but only 1 puppy became a Champion, which means 8.3% of the producing is achieved by Breeder A. Breeder B had 4 litters and produced 15 puppies in a year but 6 puppies became Champions, which means that 40% of the producing is achieved by Breeder B. Hence Breeder B produced better and more consistent quality than Breeder A. Comparatively, Breeder A just breeds for “Quantity”.
How can we breed consistent quality in our breeding? Selecting a potential brood *** is the best interest of the breeder to produce consistent litters. I would like to show you my studies, research and experience for selecting a quality brood ***, the importance of a quality brood *** and how to produce a future quality brood *** through careful breeding plans and then achieve consistent quality in breeding.
1. Quality Brood ***
“Nothing in the world is as important to the breeding program as the selection of the breed ***.” – Born to Win, by Patricia V. Craige
Five points should be considered when selecting a quality brood or a foundation ***:
“世界上没有比在饲养过程中挑选一只好品种的母犬更重要的了” –Born to Win, by Patricia V. Craige
1.1 Breed type:
Different breeders may interpret breed type differently and it does not mean who is right or wrong. Breed type includes “Form and Function”
“In Siberian husky’s breed standard, MODERATE and MEDIUM are mentioned 18 times” – The Siberian husky breed focus by Thomas L. Oelschlager
在哈士奇的繁殖标准里中等的、适度的被提到18次–The Siberian husky breed focus by Thomas L. Oelschlager Basically, MODERATE and MEDIUM represent the Siberian husky breed type or characteristics. Each breed has different breed type (form and function), which is used to identify the breed.
For instance, Afghanistan is a mountainous country, therefore Afghan Hounds have steep pelvis because they excel in running uphill. However, the Siberian Husky should have normal pelvis because the Siberian Husky was imported into Alaska to be a sled dog who moves at a moderate speed. Due to this fact, their structure is more towards speed and endurance. Steep pelvis is disadvantageous to endurance dogs. Remember, when selecting a *** for breeding, the breeder should never select one with no breed characteristics to fulfil the breeding goal just because she is the only *** in the kennel. A quality brood *** must have correct breed type.
“Soundness is fitness to function.” – K-9 Structure & Terminology by Edward M. Gilbert, Jr. & Thelma R. Brown
“稳固是相对于功能而言的”– K-9 Structure & Terminology by Edward M. Gilbert, Jr. & Thelma R. Brown
Breed type and soundness can never be separate in the breed because breed type represents “form and function” and soundness represents “fitness to function”. Each breed has its original functions. Dogs from each breed are required to have soundness to perform this function. Soundness also includes health. Likewise, breeders should never pick a working dog for breeding just because it is a healthy dog when the *** cannot perform her original breed function.
1.3 Anatomy, behaviour and movement (phenotype):
“Anatomy is a branch of biology that is the consideration of the structure of living things.” – Wikipedia
Canine anatomy is essential to breeding and is not only about structure. It includes the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, urinary, immune, integumentary, lymphatic, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory and skeletal systems. But at the dog shows, judges usually are only be able to judge on skeleton, muscles, temperament and movement.
A quality brood *** must have correct structure. It is almost impossible to radically correct some structural faults (such as shoulder placement) in only one to two generations. However, an ordinary *** without any obvious virtues should not be picked for breeding just because she does not have any obvious structural fault. Remember, breeding quality is hard.
A *** should have a stable temperament with intelligence because she is like a model of behaviour to her puppies. Therefore, any aggressive *** should not be selected in the breeding program.
Movement is another very important element to consider when selecting a quality brood ***. Up to the time of weaning, the dam is the main influence on her offspring. Puppies always learn from their dam, and this includes movement. If the *** does not have correct movement such as restricted stride, topline with up and down motion when moving, incorrect single-track movement and etc, put her in a loving pet home and never breed her.
1.4 Pedigree (genotype):
When planning breeding, whether the dogs in the pedigree are Champions or not does not mean much for reproduction without analysis. The purpose of the pedigrees is to allow breeders to analysis the traits of the dogs in that pedigree and to see how they can be passed on them to the next generation.
Genotype determines the individual’s hereditary traits. Genotype and phenotype are of equal importance in breeding. For instance, even though sire and dam have correct tail set that shows a correct phenotype to breeders, it tells nothing about genotype to breeders and some of their puppies may still have an incorrect tail set. Hence why breeders need to have some basic concepts of genetic and do a lot of homework about the traits of each dog in the pedigree for selecting a quality ***.
1.5 Reproductive records:
It is important to record the reproductive history of the *** and her family because it will be a very useful reference tool in the future to evaluate the producing of the ***. The following reproductive records should be considered when selecting a quality brood ***. The first two points are related to show wins. Despite the fact that the show ring is not a perfect place to test animals’ quality, it is all there is.
1) The percentage of her offspring to become champions (including conformation title, obedience title, endurance title and etc). For instance, both *** A and *** B are the best to compliment the stud dogs in regards to phenotype and genotype. *** A has 3 litters, producing 8 puppies. Among her puppies, 5 of those become Champions. Therefore, 62.5% of her offspring are Champions. *** B also has 3 litters, but producing 21 puppies. Among her puppies, eight of those become Champions. Therefore, 38.1% of her offspring are Champions. It is clear to see which *** is a better quality brood *** for this dog.
2) For conformation show, the percentage of her offspring to get Best In Show, Group wins, group placement and specialties wins should be considered.
3) A study on whether the *** can produce better male offspring or female offspring.
4) A study on the reproductive records of the *** of the sire’s dam.
5) Did the *** produce any genetic conditions in the offspring?
“THE X FACTOR points out the brood *** may be more important than previously realized.” – Another Puzzle piece, Patricia Craige, 1998
未知因素指出种母也许比之前认识到的情况更重要。– Another Puzzle piece, Patricia Craige, 1998
Thoroughbred breeding has made a great impact in canine breeding because of the revolutionary and exciting new insights gained by the genetics experts in thoroughbreds. In 1997, Patricia Craige published a well-known canine breeding book “Born to Win – Breed to Succeed”. Mrs Craige can be called a pioneer with the introduction of the thoroughbred’s X-Factor theory into the Canine world.
Canines have 39 chromosome pairs. Like most mammals, canines have one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Each sire carries one Y-chromosome and one X-chromosome, denoted as XY, while each dam carries two X-chromosomes, denoted as XX. The sire receives the X-chromosome from his dam and then passes on it to his daughters while he inherits the Y-chromosome from his sire and then passes it on to his sons. The X-chromosome is considerably larger than the Y-chromosome in size and Y-chromosome carries lesser inheritable materials. Different mammals have different sized of X- and Y-chromosomes. For instance, the X-chromosome in a horse is 70% larger than Y-chromosome. Canine X-chromosome’s size is 139 Mb* which is the largest chromosome the among 39 chromosome pairs because Y-chromosome’s size is just 27 Mb. The canine X-chromosome is over 80% larger than the Y-chromosome. 狗狗有39对染色体。像大多数哺乳动物一样，狗在每一个细胞里都有一对性染色体。每一个父体携带一个Y型染色体和一个X型染色体，用XY来表示，与此同时每一个母体携带两个X染色体，被表示为XX。父体从他的母体接到X染色体然后把它传给他的女儿们，与此同时他从他的父亲哪里继承了Y染色体然后传给他的儿子们。X染色体在大小上要比Y染色体要大得多，并且Y染色体携带了很少的遗传物质。不同哺乳动物的X和Y染色体的大小是不同的。比如说，马的X染色体要比Y的染色体要大70%。狗的X染色体的大小是139Mb，是狗狗39对染色体中最大的，因为Y型染色体的大小只有27Mb。狗的X染色体差不多比Y型染色体要大80%。
Different mammals’ chromosomes carry different inheritable materials. For instance, the X-chromosome of the horse carries large heart characteristics. According to different chromosomes, a region of DNA, e.g., quantitative trait locus (QTL) can be found that is related to a particular phenotypic trait. X-chromosomes have been shown to carry genes in relation to sex, reproduction, mental functions, skeletal muscle and a part of skeletal traits.
不同的哺乳动物的染色体携带不同的遗传物质。比如说，马的X染色体携带了大量的心脏特征（心脏越大，越适合奔跑）。根據不同的染色體區域的DNA ，例如，數量性狀位點（ QTL ）可以發現，涉及到某一特定表型性狀。X 染色体表现出携带有关的基因给性别，生殖，智力，骨骼肌和一部分骨骼性状。
As mentioned above, the X-chromosome contains the genes associated with reproduction, mental function, skeletal muscle and a part of skeleton characteristic. The sire carries only one X chromosome while the dam carries two. Following careful breeding plans, the quality brood ***es in the breed can usually carry two quality X-chromosomes and when a brood *** carries on two quality X-chromosomes, she can possibly produce the same quality male offspring and female offspring.
Hence, selecting a quality dam is very important. When a breeder chooses a dam for breeding, the breeder must select a well-constructed *** with a good producing record. When selecting a stud dog for breeding, the breeder must study the structure and the reproductive record of the stud dog’s dam. In order to produce good brood ***es in the breeding program, the breeder should only use the stud dogs that are produced by great dams since the X of the sire will be passed onto his daughters. In this respect, mediocre ***es must be avoided in the breeding programs.
Referring to figure 2.1, Venus must contain one Vanna’s X-Chromosome and she has 50% chance to carry Jordan’s X-chromosome and a 50% chance to carry one of two Marilyn’s X-chromosome.
Figure 2.1. Venus’s pedigree
ust like every other breeding methodology, the X-factor also has its limitations. Breeders need to be aware of the sex linked diseases, which is an abnormal gene contained in X chromosome. Normally, sex linked diseases are linked with X-chromosome. It is extremely rare to link with the Y-chromosome. For instance, XL-PRA disease is linked with the X-chromosome in Siberian Husky.
3. M Factor
With both muscle and structure are important to provide support and movement to the dogs, the metabolic system also has equal importance to movement. Its chemical reaction, which occurring in all living organisms generates energy and maintains life. Due to the extremely heterogeneous tissue of the mammalian skeletal muscle, its different muscles fibres can metabolically satisfy various functional demands. The Siberian Husky is an example of this. The Siberian Husky is required to have an explosive movement to start, which is provided by Type II (fast twitch) muscle fibre, and endurance, which is provided by Type I (slow twitch) muscle fibre.
Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. The number of Mitochondrion depends on the biochemical metabolic level. The more exuberant the metabolic activities are, the more mitochondria there are present in the cell. Mitochondria can be described as “cellular power plants” because its organic matter oxidation can convert energy into Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria have a small amount of their own DNA, which is called as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). mtDNA contains thirty-seven genes, which are essential to normal mitochondrial function. In order to make enzymes in oxidative phosphorylation, instructions are given by thirteen of these genes. Oxidative phosphorylation is defined as the process of using oxygen and sugars to create the main energy source of the cell, which is ATP. The more the muscle is capable of oxidizing organic matter into ATP, the better the muscle would be.
M-Factor , so called by thoroughbred breeding theorist Ken McLean, refers to mtDNA. Biologists also discovered the following three points in regards to Mitochondria:
M-要素，命名于纯种动物繁殖理论学家Ken McLean. 生物学家也发现了一下三点根据线粒体
1) They possess their own DNA with its slightly different genetic code. mtDNA is independent and non-Mendelian.他们附带他们不同的轻微的基因代码占有他们自己的DNA。MtDNA，是独立的并且非孟德尔派的。
2) Mitochondria can only be passed onto the next generation by the mother. She can hand on some of her mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the egg. 线粒体只能通过母体传递到下一代。她可以把一些他的在细胞液里的线粒体传递到卵子之中。
3) The rate of evolution of mtDNA appears to be approximately ten times faster than that of Nuclear DNA (i.e. DNA found in the nucleus of cells.
In reproduction, since mitochondria are inherited only from the dam, the dam’s egg cell will destroy the mitochondria in mammalian sperm after fertilization.
Ken McLean believes that in racing horse breeding, superior mitochondria can be transmitted via direct female line for generations. “Perhaps some race horses inherit far superior mitochondria from their dams in direct female-line descent. This might explain why some families can produce a consistent number of stakes winners.”, he wrote in Genetic Heritage.
What does M-Factor have done with canine breeding? Because the sire cannot pass on mtDNA to his offspring, it is essential that breeders select a dam with correct musculoskeletal system. When breeders apply X-factor theory and understand the importance of M-factor in breeding, they can begin to structure the pedigree and phenotype together in the hope of obtaining a quality brood *** for their future breeding programs.
4. Planning producing quality brood ***
Many breeders believe that the ideal brood *** may come about by luck, but not by searching for her. This is not true. In fact, a breeder can plan and structure the pedigrees of both the sire and dam with the correct phenotype for producing superior quality brood ***. Before discussing how to plan and structure the pedigree, you should understand what “Direct Female Line” and “Female Family Inbreeding/Linebreeding” are.
4.1 Direct Tail Female line
Each dog has a direct tail female line and a direct sire line in the pedigree but breeders need to identify a good reproductive record from direct tail female line in the pedigree. The direct tail female line is located on the dam side. In Figure 4.1, all the ***es along the bottom line of the pedigree (highlighted in yellow) while direct sire line is located on the sire side, (all the sires along the top line of the pedigree highlighted in green in Figure 4.1). In order to select a quality dam with true “Direct Tail Female Line”, breeders need to research and study the relevant reproductive record.
For example, Siska had 5 litters, producing 26 puppies. She produced 11 Champions, which means that 42.3% of her total offspring were Champions plus one of the greatest brood ***es in the history. Siska’s daughter – Fire had 7 litters, producing 31 puppies and she produced 13 Champions and 34.2% of her total offspring are Champions and some of those are individual Best in Show winners and Specialty winners. Fire’s Daughter – Flame had 4 litters, producing 19 puppies. She produced 10 Champions with 52.6% of her total offspring being Champions. With two of those being individual Best in Show winners and four of those are Runner-Up Best in Show winners.
According to these figures, Siska, Fire and Flame carried on their consistent producing from generation to generation and more importantly, it shows that Spice has quality “Direct Tail Female Line” in the pedigree. For a quality brood ***, the percentage for her offspring to come Champions (including conformation title, obedience title or endurance test, etc) should be over 30% out of her total offspring. In the Siberian Husky’s breed history, the most superior brood *** produced 13 puppies in the 1980’s. Twelve of those finished as Champions meaning that 92.3% of her total offspring are Champions.
4.2 Female Family Inbreeding / Linebreeding
“My final Conclusion, then is that bloodstock breeders should take yet another and close look at the classic methods of mating practiced by their successful forebears, as discussed in detail in this book: inbreed, not to the same stallion (sire), but to the same (foundation) mare (dam) within three to five generations….” – Breeding Racehorses, Dennis Craig, 1964.
The valuable breeding methods are those that have been tested over many years and have quality from generation to generation. “Female Family Inbreeding (FFI)” is the method that has been documented since the origin of the Thoroughbred. FFI occurs when an individual’s sire and dam contribute complementary strains from the same female ancestors. Thoroughbred and Canine breeders interpret inbreeding differently. Thoroughbred breeders believe that inbreeding occurs when the same ancestorrepeat in 5 generations whereas canine breeders believe that inbreeding occurs when breeding brother to sister and parents to offspring occurs.
我最终结论是，纯血统繁殖者应该使用并且密切关注用它们的成功的祖辈来配种这样经典的繁殖方法，正如在Dennis Craig, 1964年出版的赛级马的繁殖的书中说道的，“不用一只种马（犬）而是用不同的母马（犬）进行3至5代的繁殖。
Canine breeders also believe that linebreeding occurs when breeding grandsire to grand-offspring, uncle to niece and aunt to nephew. Due to different interpretations, FFI should be written as “Female Family lnbreeding / linebreeding” for canine breeding. The following are some examples of female family inbreeding / linebreeding pedigrees:
4.3 Pedigree Pattern for seeking quality brood ***
“…… sometimes the ultimate in balance (pedigree) is achieved when the great producers in the breed relate to each other in balanced genetic combinations they return to the progeny through both sire and the dam.” – Born to Win, by Patricia V. Craige
In Inbreeding to Superior female, by Rommy Faversham and Leon Rasmussen, which was published in 1999, the authors introduced two pedigree patterns for FFI. One is Formula One Pattern pedigree and the other is Delta Pattern pedigree.
对很好的母犬做同种异系交配，出自Rommy Faversham 和 Leon Rasmussen,１９９９年，坐着介绍了２个给ＦＦＩ的血统图谱，一个是公式，一个是图谱，还有一个是三角洲图示血统。
4.3.1 Formula One Pattern
In regards to Female Family Inbreeding / Linebreeding, for Formula One Pattern to be constituted, the individual’s sire and dam should both share the same dam or grand dam in the pedigree (see Figure 4.5). Breeders can apply X- factor and M-factor to structure the Formula One Pattern in the hope to get a quality brood ***.
Firstly, it is assumed that Flame is a quality brood *** in the following pedigrees, so we attempt to structure two Flame X-chromosomes. Caesar passes on one Flame X-chromosome to his daughter because he only carries one X-chromosome from his dam, while Spice has one Chief X-chromosome and one Flame X-Chromosome. In figure 4.5, if breeding Caesar to Spice, their female offspring will have 75% chance to carry two Flame X-chromosomes and all their female offspring will carry on with Flame’s mtDNA because M-factor is only shown in ***’s “Direct Tail Female Line”.
首先。假定Flame是一支高质量的种母犬在下面的血统表里，因此我们尝试着去建立两个Flame的X染色体。Caesar传了Flame的1个X染色体给了他的女儿，因为他只携带了一个x色体从他的妈妈，同时呢Spice有一个Chief的X染色体和一个Flame的X染色体。 在体征4.5，如果繁育Ceasar 和Spice，他们的小母后代将有75%记录携带Flame的Mtdna， 因为M因素只显示在母犬的直接母系跟踪线上。